Trade effects of environmental and animal welfare standards

Implementation of the Clean Water Act (CWA) in the USA could increase production costs by around 1%, and implementation of nutrient management regulations in Canada could increase production costs in the range between 2 and 4%. Such cost increases can have considerable implications for international trade. Cost increases of animal welfare rules in the pig sector of the EU have limited implications for international trade.

These are some of the conclusions of a paper titled "Trade effects of environmental and animal welfare standards in the hog sectors of the EU, US and Canada".