There is a reality that people, states and countries have differing opinions about what constitutes appropriate standards of protection and care of animals.
Human discovery of pharmacologically active substances is arguably the oldest of the biomedical sciences with origins >3500 years ago. Since ancient times, four major transformations have dramatically impacted pharmaceutical development, each driven by advances in scientific knowledge, technology, and/or regulation: (1) anesthesia, analgesia, and antisepsis; (2) medicinal chemistry; (3) regulatory toxicology; and (4) targeted drug discovery.
There are two major societal developments that have assisted in furthering the development of animal welfare standards and animal protections.
The descendants of escaped exotic pets could save endangered species. That’s what a team of scientists argues in a new paper, which proposes replenishing decimated populations of animals with their kin from the pet trade. One potential target is the yellow-crested cockatoo, one of the world's most prized household birds whose wild numbers are plummeting.
Stem cell research is highly debated in the field of bioethics. Is there a difference between using the stem cells of people in contrast using the stem cells of animals?